of the WG to establish a new Association does not mean to stop further
activities of the AGID Working Group. The new Association should recommend to
establish some special working groups for geoethics (and ethics) in many
associations within the IUGS family (and maybe also in the family of the mining
world and elsewhere). Our WG in the framework of AGID can serve as a new model
for other associations. Therefore it will be useful to continue also with the
AGID Working Group for Geoethics - only with a focus on a new kind of activities
(Dr. Vaclav Nemec).
Nikitina Geoethics: theory, principles, problems.
Monograph. M:, LLC Geoinformmark, 2012. 155 pp. ISBN
first monograph about Geoethics was published in July 2012 in Russia. The monograph
contains the first systematic exposition of main provisions of the new
scientific field of ethics geoethics, analyzing its
status and considering its place in the system of contemporary scientific
knowledge. Particular attention is paid to the development of moral
foundations of relations in the system of human being - abiotic
, arising from
the scientific research of the Earth and its mineral resources, practical
geological exploration, mining and utilization of mineral resources, as
well as from the use of mineral resources while constructing and operating
the underground facilities not related to mining.
specialists of research institutes, university professors, employees of
the administrative apparatus, legislative authorities, developers of a
variety of programs, concepts and scenarios for the development and
utilization of mineral resources, geologists and workers of the mining
April/2012: The Spanish
Official Association of Geologists (ICOG: Ilustre Colegio Oficial de
Geologos) has created the Commission of
Geoethics(President: Jose Luis Gonzalez (ICOG); VicePresident: Jesus
Geoethics is a key discipline in the field of Earth and
Planetary Sciences , which involves
scientific, technological, methodological and social-cultural aspects (e.g.
sustainability, development, museology), but also the necessity of considering
appropriate protocols, scientific integrity issues and a code of good practice,
regarding the study of the abiotic world.
Studies on planetary geology
(sensu lato ) and astrobiology also require a
2008. Tierra: Spanish Thematic Network of Earth and Planetary
Since 1992, geoethical
problems started to be regularly presented in the frame of the International
Synthetic plot of
selected geological and astrogeological topics in which Geoethics plays a
significant role (Martinez-Frias, 2010)
involves respecting the "abiotic world". Geoparks and Geosites are excellent
initiatives, not only for the Earth, but also for the Moon, Mars and
beyond, which are narrowly related with the ethical approach. (see,
among others, Cockell & Hornek, 2004, 2006 and Martinez-Frias,
PLANETARY GEOLOGY AND
Geoethics and geodiversity
have gained importance in recent decades in the context of geosciences and their
interdisciplinary links. Geoethics was
formerly promoted in 1991 as a new discipline in the framework of Earth
Sciences, linking Ethics and Geology, and
involving scientific and societal aspects from theoretical and practical
approaches. The institutionalisation of geoethics was established much more
recently, in 2004, by forming a working group for geoethics with the backing of
the Association of Geoscientists for International Development (AGID). Geodiversity was used for the first time in 1993
as the geological equivalent of biodiversity. It has had considerable conceptual
development and noteworthy institutional support, and now warrants the status of
a geological paradigm, incorporating in its definition all the variety of rocks,
minerals and landforms and the processes which have formed these features
throughout geological time. Here, we propose that the incorporation of the geoethical
and geodiversity issues in planetary geology and astrobiology studies would
enrich their methodological and conceptual character.
Geoethics has applications
to, among others, the research of meteoroids and meteorites, the geological
study of terrestrial analogs, the correct use of mineralogical and geochemical
analytical procedures, the interrelation with
bioethics and organics vs. inorganic contamination in Planetary
Protection , and many other aspects associated to scientific integrity
in the context of planetary geology and astrobiology. Likewise, Geodiversity,
following the recently defined and approved IUCN guidelines and recommendations
would have an unambiguous use in Space as Planetary
Geodiversity, valuing and safeguarding the different types and groups of
meteorites as representatives of the planetary bodies of our solar system, as
well as considering the worth of the abiotic nature of the planets in itself.
(from Martinez-Frias et
Bio. Ethics and scientific integrity issues.
scientific study of the abiotic nature
and all features of the planetary bodies (asteroids, planets and moons) and their planetary geodiversity
(including terrestrial analogs).
II.- The scientific
study of bolides and meteorites as well as the
terrestrial areas affected by their impacts or influence (e.g. impact
structures, mineralogical and geochemical
museistic, geoconservation and even cultural issues regarding the legal regulation and procedural protocols related with
extraterrestrial materials (e.g. meteorites, Lunar samples).
Despite the term being
used with various meanings (see, for instance, Cascio (2007), Geoethics was born in 1991 at the junction of
Ethics and Geology. Dr. Vaclav Nemec (since 2004 Vicepresident forEurope of the Association of Geoscientists for International
Development -AGID, Head of the AGID Working Group for
Geoethics, Krumbein Medalist of the International
Association for Mathematical Geology) is considered the father of
this discipline. Geoethics has been accepted by both Earth and Social
Sciences because the necessity of an appropriate ethical attitude to the
whole geosphere and of a critical analysis of geoethical dilemmas and
finding ways how to solve them (Dr. Vaclav Nemec
At present, Space
Agencies, through the well-established Planetary Protection requirements,
are committed to exploring space preventing all types of biological
contamination, and preserving the planetary conditions mainly considering biological and bioethical issues.
here that the application of Geoethics to Planetary and Space Research
is crucial to widen the classical concept of Planetary Protection (including
scientific integrity issues), bearing in mind, besides the organics-bearing
perspective, many other aspects much more connected with the abiotic world.
This initiative to
apply Geoethics (Ethics and Geology) to Planetary
Protection, Space Exploration and Astrobiology was launched by J.
Martinez-Frias (Coordinator) (CAB, CSIC-INTA and Associate Unit
CSIC-UVA), V. Nemec and L. Nemcova (AGID), R. de la
Torre and J.G. Rejas (INTA), G. Horneck (DLR), F. Rull (Associate
Unit CSIC-UVA and CAB, CSIC-INTA),R. Lunar (UCM), J.A. Rodriguez-Losada
(ULL), J. Madero (MCCM), F. Garcia Talavera (OAMC), A. Perez Verde (CAB,
CSIC-INTA) and S. Hernandez-Fernandez
If you want to be involved in this initiative, send an
e-mail including your name and address to: jmfrias @cab.inta-csic.es
Martinez-Frias, J., Rodriguez-Losada, J.A., Lunar,
R., Rull, F., Madero, J., Garcia Talavera, F., Perez Verde, A. and
Hernandez-Fernandez, S. (2009) Meteorites as geological heritage in the new
Spanish legislation: current state, scientific and ethical praxis, and
international implications regarding geodiversity in the Earth and Solar System.
Bolides and MeteoriteFalls, Prague, May 10-15,
Martinez-Frias, J., Nemec, V., Nemcova, L., De la
Torre, R. and Horneck, G. (2009) Geoethics and Geodiversity in Space
Exploration: Implications in Planetary Geology and Astrobiology. 9th European Workshop on Astrobiology, EANA
09, 12-14 October 2009, Brussels, Belgiam.
Martinez-Frias, J., Nemec, V., Nemcova, L., De la
Torre, R. and Horneck, G. (2009) The significance of Geoethics in Planetary
Protection and Space Research. The International Section GeoethicsMining Pribram
Symposium 2009, October 12-16, 2009, Pribram, Czech Republic.
Martinez-Frias, J., Horneck, G., De la Torre, R. &
Rull, F. (2010) A geoethical approach to the geological and astrobiological
exploration of the Moon and Mars. 38th COSPAR
Scientific Assembly, PEX1: Protecting the Lunar and
Martian Environments for Scientific Research, Bremen, Germany,
Martinez-Frias, J. &
Gonzalez-Garcia, J.L. (2010) El 'Ecologismo Espacial'. El Mundo. Eureka.
Ciencia. 25 Julio 2010.